At this point, I will describe the history of three Portuguese wine styles that are unique in the world. I start by Vinho Verde. It's a wine style that unfortunately begins to combine its historical uniqueness to the existing business "trend" in some markets, and that hence loses its true identity.
The region of Vinho Verde - Figure 23 - is one of the oldest regions of Portugal and the World. The first records of its existence as a wine producing region date back to the twelfth century, when the crop was performed by the religious orders. At this point the socio-economic conditions were quite different from those we live in today; However, the importance of international relations that this region had, and the geographical conditions that it presented, for instance an important commercial port, the Viana do Castelo Port, produced the records of the first wine exports from Portugal to Europe. Countries like England, Flanders and Germany were the most popular destinations of these wines.
The region is geographically delimited in 1908; only in 1949 the OIV recognizes the designation of origin Vinho Verde: located north of Portugal and the north-east of Spain, with the natural boundaries of the Minho River to the north and the Mountainous region to the south.The region of Vinho Verde has a total area of about 35 million hectares, 31,625 producers, and the most planted white grape varieties are Loureiro, Alvarinho, Arinto, Trajadura, Azal-Branco, Avesso and Batoca. In red varieties Vinhão, Borraçal, Amaral, Brancelho, Espadeiro, Rabo de Ovelha, Padeiro de Basto and Pedral.
The soils are of granitic origin, with some exceptions of slate (also called slab or schist). The climate is marked by a wide relative humidity. During the winter and spring there is a strong concentration of rains and the annual rainfall is around 1500 mm. The temperature throughout the year progresses in a gradual manner, although the cold winters are present and summers slightly warm and dry. Thanks to these climatic conditions, the soil of granitic origin has evolved and today has a high fertility, which contributed to the evolution of the vineyard cultivation in this region.